History of Plastics
Provide a forecast of what the workforce demand
would be over a five-year period to produce and market your team's technical application
or process. Include the impact such production would have on the marketplace.
Give two examples of undergraduate or graduate
degree programs in science or engineering that directly relate to your team's NCT technical
application. For each program, be sure to include the following:
According to the
United States Bureau of Labor Statistics
"In fishing, increases in imports and efforts to revive many fisheries through stringent
limits on fishing activity will continue to lead to employment declines. In certain
areas of the country, such as Alaska, prudent management has sustained healthy fisheries
that should continue to harvest massive amounts of fish. In other areas, fisheries
have been damaged by coastal pollution and depleted by years of overfishing. In
these areas there will be fewer jobs for fishers.
Jobs in agriculture and fishing are expected to remain hard to find and vulnerable
to being eliminated."
The plastic trash in the world's seas and oceans could further negatively impact
the U.S. fishing industry through its poisoning of the marine food chain. Since
data quantifying plastic's pervasive present is currently not available we are using
two simlar agricultural events to emulate the possible affect that this pollution
might have on the fishing industry. These scenarios are the 2006 outbreak of e.coli
in spinach for the state of Texas and the 2008 outbreak of salmonella for the state
On September 16, 2006, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention informed the
Food and Drug Association that an e.coli outbreak had occurred. The outbreak resulted
in 205 illnesses, 3 deaths, and spread to 26 states. This chart, calculated by Center
for North American Studies staff using IMPLAN 2004, shows the economic effect this
outbreak had on the Texas spinach industry; costing it a total of $11 billion. This
is relevant to our topic because plastic pollution could have the same detrimental
effect on the fishing industry as the E. coli outbreak had on the spinach industry.
In 2008, the Food and Drug Association issued a nationwide warning to consumers
about the Salmonella outbreak being linked to the consumption of raw tomatoes. Not
only did the diminished production of tomatoes affect the tomato industry but it
also affected other related industries, such as: financial, construction, transportation,
and manufacturing companies. This shows how a damaged fish industry might affect
other industries resulting in an economic depression.
Our adviser, Michael Friend, noted in an email dated February 22nd, that
"The danger and potential for a marine ecological disaster is even greater than
the examples of food-borne contamination in an agricultural system. Unlike the agricultural
model, the oceans species are all linked in a complex tiered chain. Any disruption
to a critical species can have widespread impact not only on that species, but on
the entire chain. The potential for major loss of employment in fishing and related
sectors increases dramatically as the impact of pollution-caused damage spreads
up and down the marine food chain."
"As the worlds population increases, stress on agricultural resources continues
to build. It will become increasingly difficult to sustain sufficient food production
to meet total world demand. As a result, dependence on well-managed marine systems
as a food resource will increase. Part of the overall strategy for responsible management
must and will be pollution control in the oceans. As the balance of food production
shifts from agriculture to marine systems, employment in all related sectors will
grow. A well-developed pollution control initiative will help to reduce the risk
of marine system collapse, with resulting loss of employment. At the same time,
the initiative will produce new sources of employment in fishing, marine resource
management, and waste management."
As any form of pollution increases and its environmental ramifications are regulated,
industries emerge to meet world need for technical standards and cleanup. One such
example is ONET technologies
The ONET group offers advanced solutions in various aspects of nuclear engineering.
Their services range from nuclear and chemical cleanup to nuclear safety. Companies
that form the ONET group are
incorporated in Spain, France, Belgium, Luxembourg, Switzerland, and Italy.
The following companies involved with Onet specialize in all aspects of nuclear
engineering: Comex Nucleaire,
Onectra, Sogedec, and
Techman Industrie. Onets statistics from 2005-2007, depicted below, illustrate
that their net gain is slowly increasing and that their net debt is generally decreasing.
These statistics indicate that the pollution control industry is going through a
period of expansion.
Images courtesy of ONET
URL address of the institution,
department (for example, chemical engineering, electronic engineering) where the program
is offered, and
brief description of the program of study.
The School of Marine Science and Engineering at the University of Plymouth
is one of the largest in Europe and
offers teaching and research in four main subject groups:civil and coastal engineering,
marine biology, marine sciences, and mechanical and marine engineering.
The University of Plymouth's Marine Institute was formed to consolidate efforts
to create innovative solutions
to challenging problems regarding the
ocean and coasts. Their aim is to create an environment where students can learn
and research marine sciences, foster an atmosphere for innovative ocean-related
problem solving, and to enhance and create more connections with partners who share
their same ideals.
C160 BSc (Hons) Marine Biology and Coastal Ecology
This degree course is unique in the UK in that it takes a cross-system approach
to the study of marine ecology, encouraging students to compare marine systems with
other ecosystem types within a global context. Such an approach is highly relevant
considering the large-scale nature of the current threats to coastal ecosystems.
Threats to the coastal zone will also impinge on associated habitats such as freshwaters,
estuaries, salt marshes and sand dunes - providing you with an understanding of
these systems alongside a knowledge of marine systems that adds an important extra
dimension to your ecological expertise.
CF17 BSc (Hons) Marine Biology and Oceanography
This is an inter-disciplinary course, providing an in-depth study of the biological,
physical and chemical processes that occur in the marine environment. The course
covers both theoretical and practical aspects enabling you to acquire skills relevant
to the challenges facing marine scientists in the new millennium. The aim of the
course is to develop an integrated understanding of the processes that operate within
the oceans and the life that we find there.
F700 BSc (Hons) Ocean Science
Discover the science behind the behaviour of the Earth's oceans and atmosphere and
how these systems influence and interact with human activity. Topics currently include
physical oceanography; coastal processes; meteorology and climatology; underwater
sound and light; remote sensing; biological oceanography; marine pollution and conservation;
sustainable management and scientific diving (limited places).
F710 BSc (Hons) Environmental Science (Marine Conservation)
Ranked 'excellent' for the quality of its teaching, the School of Earth, Ocean and
Environmental Sciences offers one of the longest-running, largest courses of its
type in Europe offering a wide range of choice within the course. It is one of the
few courses that combines physico-chemical, biological and cultural sciences within
an interdisciplinary framework. There is a strong emphasis on offering solutions
to environmental problems through an international approach.
J600 BSc (Hons) Marine and Composites Technology
This course allows the development of knowledge and skills in key aspects of marine
technology, particularly in naval architecture (the structure of marine vessels),
marine engineering (marine plant and ship systems) and composites technology (advanced
materials). Engineering design forms a strong theme throughout the course. This
accredited degree can open doors to exciting careers in the marine industry.
J610 BEng (Hons) Marine Technology
This course develops the two key areas in marine technology: naval architecture
and marine engineering. It offers a broad engineering and design education to prepare
you for a rewarding career in the marine industry. Accredited by the Institute of
Marine Engineering, Science and Technology and the Royal Institution of Naval Architects
it will give you an excellent start towards Chartered Engineer status.
MIT's School of
has a wide variety of applications in the real world.
provides students with the quantitative, problem-solving, design, and communication
skills necessary to excel in this field.1 Currently students enrolled in Mechanical Engineering
can participate in such projects as nanoengineering, creating miniature robots,
and designing 3-D nanostructures.2
2.25 Advanced Fluid Mechanics
This course surveys the principal concepts and methods of fluid dynamics. Topics
include mass conservation, momentum, and energy equations for continua, the Navier-Stokes
equation for viscous flows, similarity and dimensional analysis, lubrication theory,
boundary layers and separation, circulation and vorticity theorems, potential flow,
an introduction to turbulence, lift and drag, surface tension and surface tension
driven flows. The class assumes students have had one prior undergraduate class
in the area of fluid mechanics. Emphasis is placed on being able to formulate and
solve typical problems of engineering importance.
2.011 Introduction of Ocean Science and Engineering
This course is an introduction to the fundamental aspects of science and engineering
necessary for exploring, observing, and utilizing the oceans. Hands-on projects
focus on instrumentation in the marine environment and the design of ocean observatories
for ocean monitoring and exploration. Topics include acoustics, sound speed and
refraction, sounds generated by ships and marine animals, sonar systems and their
principles of operation, hydrostatic behavior of floating and submerged bodies geared
towards ocean vehicle design, stability of ocean vessels, and the application of
instrumentation and electronics in the marine environment. Students work with sensor
systems and deploy them in the field to gather and analyze real world data.
This course covers the development of the fundamental equations of fluid mechanics
and their simplifications for several areas of marine hydrodynamics and the application
of these principles to the solution of engineering problems. Topics include the
principles of conservation of mass, momentum and energy, lift and drag forces, laminar
and turbulent flows, dimensional analysis, added mass, and linear surface waves,
including wave velocities, propagation phenomena, and descriptions of real sea waves.
Wave forces on structures are treated in the context of design and basic seakeeping
analysis of ships and offshore platforms. Geophysical fluid dynamics will also be
addressed including distributions of salinity, temperature, and density; heat balance
in the ocean; major ocean circulations and geostrophic flows; and the influence
of wind stress. Experimental projects conducted in ocean engineering laboratories
illustrating concepts taught in class, including ship resistance and model testing,
lift and drag forces on submerged bodies, and vehicle propulsion.
13.021 Marine Hydrodynamics
In this course the fundamentals of fluid mechanics are developed in the context
of naval architecture and ocean science and engineering. The various topics covered
are: Transport theorem and conservation principles, Navier-Stokes' equation, dimensional
analysis, ideal and potential flows, vorticity and Kelvin's theorem, hydrodynamic
forces in potential flow, D'Alembert's paradox, added-mass, slender-body theory,
viscous-fluid flow, laminar and turbulent boundary layers, model testing, scaling
laws, application of potential theory to surface waves, energy transport, wave/body
forces, linearized theory of lifting surfaces, and experimental project in the towing
tank or propeller tunnel.
13.022 Ocean Wave Interaction with Ships and Offshore Energy Systems
The subject introduces the principles of ocean surface waves and their interactions
with ships, offshore platforms and advanced marine vehicles. Surface wave theory
is developed for linear and nonlinear deterministic and random waves excited by
the environment, ships, or floating structures. Following the development of the
physics and mathematics of surface waves, several applications from the field of
naval architecture and offshore engineering are addressed. They include the ship
Kelvin wave pattern and wave resistance, the interaction of surface waves with floating
bodies, the seakeeping of ships high-speed vessels and offshore platforms, the evaluation
of the drift forces and other nonlinear wave effects responsible for the slow-drift
responses of compliant offshore platforms and their mooring systems designed for
hydrocarbon recovery from large water depths.
13.42 Design Principles for Ocean Vehicles
The course covers the basic techniques for evaluating the maximum forces and loads
over the life of a marine structure or vehicle, so as to be able to design its basic
configuration. Loads and motions of small and large structures and their short-term
and long-term statistics are studied in detail and many applications are presented
in class and studied in homework and laboratory sessions. Issues related to seakeeping
of ships are studied in detail. The basic equations and issues of maneuvering are
introduced at the end of the course. Three laboratory sessions demonstrate the phenomena
studied and provide experience with experimental methods and data processing.
Due to the critical importance of plastic and its properties to our project, we
have included a third undergraduate program specializing in the science of polymers.
The Ferris State University states that its
is the largest and most respected undergraduate program in
the United States. Started in 1982, it strives to fill the plastics industry's need
technically trained personnel. According to
, in America, about
1.1 million people
work in plastics, making it our
manufacturing industry. Classes include
in "processing, material testing and properties, and mold and product
design" and emphasize hands-on learning with industry-standard equipment.
MECH 340 Statics-Strength of Materials
Statics and strength of materials is a part of physics known as mechanics: forces,
components, resultants, equilibrium, friction, centroids, and stress/strain relationships.
Dynamics will be introduced. Covers strength of materials; the concepts of stress
and strain, axial stress and deformation, thermal stress and deformation, stress
concentrations, factor of safety, torsional stress and deformation, beam stresses,
combined stress, riveted joints, welded joints, and Mohr's circle.
PLTS 100 Survey Plastics-Elastomer Tech
with basic concepts of Plastics and Elastomer Technology. Students will become familiar
with history, basic materials, application/design, processing, markets, and future
of Plastics and Elastomer Technology. No previous background in the subject required.
PLTS 223 Testing-Physical Property
Demonstrates the concepts of procedures used in evaluating both theoretical and
practical plastic materials, and molded parts. Standard testing methods used for
evaluation of plastic materials, in particular ASTM and ISO. Interpretation of testing
results with respect to raw materials selection, processing parameters, and part
design considerations. Basic quality control/quality assurance techniques related
to plastics testing.
PLTS 321 Advanced Injection Molding
A theoretical approach to injection molding. Plastics processing is examined from
a molecular perspective. Various engineering plastics are described in rheological
terms of flow response to forces applied. Advanced troubleshooting and process optimization
is dealt with in terms of process monitoring and cavity pressure sensing. Varying
process parameters, cycle times, and moisture are evaluated for their effects on
the final parts. Various types of injection molding techniques are introduced.
PLTS 342 Plastic Material
Demonstrates the procedures one should follow to select plastics for an application.
Major plastics fabrication techniques and the main plastics design ""rules of thumb""
are reviewed. Classwork covers plastics failure mechanisms and weakness which plastics
materials exhibit. Emphasis is on plastics materials, specifications, economics,
and historical application areas.
PLTS 361 Plastics Composites
The student will be introduced to all aspects of composite materials including:
(1) History of Composites/Future of Composites, (2) Composite Materials, (3) Composite
Processing, (4) Use and Applications of Composites, (5) Composite Issues (Design,
Cost, Environmental). This course provides the student with an understanding of
the effects of combining other materials with plastics to produce composite materials.
The practical applications of plastics composite materials are stressed to emphasize
the value of plastics composite products.
Develop an idea for a new science and/or engineering degree program
that might emerge given the advancements in scientific knowledge that the team has identified.
Provide a title and 100-word description of this new degree program.
Our graduate program, Mechanical Engineering Solutions for Ocean Environments (MESOE)
will prepare students to design equipment and structures for the use in an ocean
environment; focusing on developing new techniques for research and devising new
solutions to for our future and current problems in using and maintaining our
oceans. Students entering into this program should have a strong background in Engineering
During student's second year they will participate in a full-time internship in
order to fulfill their graduate program requirements. The internship will culminate
in a thesis report representing orignal research in an area of their choice. Students
will participate along side their professors developing improvements in data collection,
mitigation of pollution, or analysis of collected data.
Fundamental Chemistry of the Ocean Environment
Corrosive agents in Ocean Environments
Fundamentals of Ocean Ecology
Analysis of Global Currents and Wind Systems
Differential Analysis of Centralized Current Systems
Impacts of Geological Events on the Ocean Environment
Analysis of Periodic Variations on Ocean Conditions
Fundamentals of Long term Trends in an Ocean Environment
Statistical Modeling of Discrete Data
Impact Modeling of Multi-Variable Systems
Analysis of Structural Design
Basic Understanding of Statics & Dynamics
Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics
Fundamentals in Hydrodynamics
Advanced Studies Hydrodynamics across Control Surfaces
Material Science in the Ocean Environment
Fundamentals of Sonar
Advanced Studies of Plastic Composition
Fundamentals of Marine Biology
Advanced Naval Architecture
- Study the movement, distribution and collection of plastic and other pollution in
- Study the transportation of pollution and contamination by local tributary to the
- Study the contamination of lakes and their tributaries by toxins and other pollutants
along with their impact on the ecosystems
- Study the eviromental impact of offshore oil platforms along with the development
and use of new technologies to reduce there environmental foot print
In an email dated February 28, 2010, Miriam Goldstein stated
"If I were building a structure like you are designing, I would want engineers and
physical oceanographers. If I were assessing the impact of this structure on ocean
life, I would want biological oceanographers and/or marine ecologists."