History of Fabrics
Smart Fabric Projects
Provide a forecast of what the workforce demand
would be over a five-year period to produce and market your team's technical application
or process. Include the impact such production would have on the marketplace.
The manufacture of our product, which integrates wireless sensors and communications
devices into "smart clothing," will require a variety of workforce skills. These
skills include electrical and electronic equipment assembly, electrical and electronic
engineering, computer hardware engineering, computer software applications engineering,
and computer systems software engineering.
The Monthly Labor Review for November 2005 from the Bureau of Labor Statistics states
jobs in these areas like computer system design are among the
fastest growing jobs
in the United States. According to Al Dill, President
of the Blackfox Training Institute, these jobs would not likely be
, because of their complexity and need for skilled workers. The
Bureau of Labor Statistics states in their Career Guide to Industries, that there
will be demand
for research and
development as well as for production workers. This means there will be an increase
in demand for these occupational areas at all levels, from technical education through
two and four year degrees, to graduate degree programs.
While certain parts of the
are be on the decline, new smart phones and wireless
networks with high data flow ability reamin strong.
is a main factor in the growth of the telecommunications
Wireless service already allows connectivity between a diverse group of devices
such as, phones, computers, and even television. Our project's suit will open yet
another telecommunications application.
The use of smart materials
such as those in our suit, is expected to increase as research makes them more accessible.
These smart materials include biological sensors and piezoelectric power sources.
Demand is expected to increase for both products as improvements are made and more
suits are constructed.
As more development occurs, the economic effects of
will increase. While smart textiles will be applied more often
to consumer products and biomedical industries, significant use in homeland defense
and public safety is expected by 2012.
Our suit would directly impact public safety, and would stimulate the demand and
scope of smart textiles for military and biomedical industries.
Give two examples of undergraduate or graduate
degree programs in science or engineering that directly relate to your team's NCT
technical application. For each program, be sure to include the following:
URL address of the institution,
department (for example, chemical engineering, electronic engineering) where the
program is offered, and
brief description of the program of study.
At Virginia Polytechnic Institute,
in the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer
Engineering follows two principal degree programs:
. We have focused on courses leading to a Bachelor
of Science in Computer Engineering (CpE).
ECE 2574 — Introduction to Data Structures and Algorithms
Introduces fundamental data structures, algorithms, and abstract data types. Main
topics include data structures such as arrays, linked lists, stacks, queues, graphs,
and trees, and algorithms such as those that are used for list manipulation, graph
searches, sorting, searching, and tree traversals. Implementation of data structures
and algorithms in C++.
ECE 2704 — Signals and Systems
Analysis techniques for signals and systems. Signal representation, including Fourier
and Laplace transforms. System definitions and properties, such as linearity, causality,
time invariance, and stablility. Use of convolution, transfer functions and frequency
response to determine system response. Applications to circuit analysis.
ECE 3614 — Introduction to Communication Systems
Analysis and design of communication systems based on spectral representation of
signals. Topics include random processes and noise, pulse shaping, sampled signals,
analog-to-digital conversion, time and frequency division multiplexing, and the
design and characterization of amplitude modulation (AM), frequency modulation (FM),
and pulse code modulation (PCM) systems
ECE 4104 — Microwave and RF Engineering
Passive and active RF and microwave components and circuits for wireless communications:
transmission-line theory; planar transmission-lines and waveguides; S-parameters;
resonators; power dividers and couplers; microwave filters; sources, detectors,
and active devices; modern RF & microwave CAD; measurement techniques
ECE 4114 — Antennas
Antenna fundamentals, analysis and design principles, and a survey of antenna types
including: arrays, wire antennas, broadband antennas, and aperture antennas.
ECE 4530 — Hardware/Software Codesign
An introduction to the design of mixed hardware-software systems,focusing on common
underlying modeling concepts, the design of hardware-software interfaces, and the
trade-offs between hardware and software components. Students will use simulation
tools to conduct experiments with mixed hardware-software systems in the area of
ECE 4614 — Telecommunication Networks
Architecture, technology, operation, and application of telecommunication networks
including digital telephony, data networks, and integrated services networks. Design
and analysis of networks for voice, data, and video applications.
VPI also offers advanced research opportunities in creating smart clothes, or e-textiles.
Students and professors are making
pants with sensors
that measure speed, rotation, and flexion. The pants send
all of the information gathered from their sensors to a computer. The researchers
are currently trying to overcome a problem that other companies have also encountered:
spacing out the sensors so that
someone can roll up their sleeves
without making them malfunction. A special
with wires embedded into fabric was created to increase production for
VPI has also established a graduate-level Macromolecular Science and Engineering
Program, in coordination with the Macromolecules and Interfaces Institute (MURI
), for researching the use of ionic liquids in electromagnetic devices.
Cornell is the first university in the Ivy League to offer a
Ph.D in fiber science
. In March 2002, Cornell joined the prestigious National
Textile Center Consortium (NTC)
, a group of universities focused on research
to sharpen the global competitiveness of the domestic textile and apparel industry.
Fiber Science and Apparel Design
may take the following courses in addition
to their general education requirements:
- FSAD 1350
— Fibers, Fabrics, and Finishes
- FSAD 1360
— Fiber and Yarn Analysis Laboratory
- FSAD 2370
— Structural Fiber Design
- FSAD 3350
— Fiber Science
- MS&E 2610
— Mechanical Properties of Materials
- CHEME 6400
— Polymeric Materials
- FSAD 6390
— Mechanics of Fibrous Assemblies
Students in this department may apply to work with the
Hinestroza Research Group: Textiles Nanotechnology Laboratory
. In December
2002, one student developed a
that heated up when cold, lit up when dark, and included a pulse monitor
for athletes. The jacket used embedded sensors that regulated electroconductive
textiles in the upper back and electro-luminescent wires that run on AA batteries.
Another student created a
immersed in negatively charged nano-sized bits
of antibacterial silver which repels germs, allergens, and pollution.
Due to the critical importance of disaster relief to our project, we have included
a third undergraduate program specializing in emergency services management.
The University of Richmond offers an online bachelor of applied science in Emergency Services Management
Students take a total of 120 semester hours with 30 hours in their ESM major which
allows for the selection of one of three minors: business continuity, emergency
management, or Homeland Defense. Core courses help the student focus on emergency
services, public administration, budget and finance, as well as management and organization.
ESM 300U — Integrated Emergency Services in the Community
Basic overview of roles and functions of emergency services. Explores major issues
in their management.
ESM 350U — Externship
Basis for student's entry into the emergency management workforce as a recognized
professional. Through development of a professional portfolio, certification, professional
training series completion, active participation in professional organizations,
and a professional reading program, the student develops and reflects on specific
skills and knowledge required by working emergency managers. New students should
enroll in this course immediately upon acceptance and declaration of the major,
as it is designed to take two or more years to complete.
ESM 354U — Management and Organization of Public Agencies
Examines why and how public agencies operate the way they do. Studies the forces
acting upon public safety agencies and how those forces shape agencies' internal
and external practices in their political environment.
ESM 355U — Management by Fact
When faced with a critical decision how do you separate fact from fantasy, determine
what is relevant to your problem, and decide when you have enough information to
make a choice? Examines the critical analysis of information and its use as the
basis for administrative and operational decision making.
ESM 495U — Hazards and Threats for the Future
Examines the future of disasters and their management in the context of long-term
political, environmental, technological, economic and social change. Identifies
current methods for futures analysis and provides a framework for developing tools
and resources to design future missions and strategies for professionals in both
emergency management and business continuity and their organizations. Develops an
understanding of the relationships of vision to the future and relates that to the
department of programs to protect lives, property and the environment at any level.
Develop an idea for a new science and/or engineering degree
program that might emerge given the advancements in scientific knowledge that the
team has identified. Provide a title and 100-word description of this new degree
Students entering our graduate degree program, Mobile Communication & Network Engineering,
are expected to take undergraduate courses in electrical engineering to develop
a fundamental understanding of the theory and practices in the design, programming,
and management of remote communication networks. Such jobs require a high degree
of reliability in extreme or hazardous environments. Courses focus on wireless network
systems, their security, hardware, software and improvements.
Students are expected to complete the following courses along with an internship
to ensure that they gain the field experience necessary to design equipment that
is effective, reliable and relevant in disaster situations.
Wireless Communication Design
Micro/Nano Electronic Mechanical Systems
Computer Network Security
Digital and Data Communication
Digital Signal Processing
Coding for Reliable Communication
Signal and Data Compression
Networking in Extreme Environments
Adv Computer Architecture Micro/Nano Systems
Ergonomic Engineering & Design
Dynamic Communication Systems
Engineering Materials & Hardware Design
In emails dated 24 February 2009, Mr. Kister stated that:
His company has grown dramatically over the last 5 years. In the last 12 months, we have increased our staff 35-40%. The four basic functions
that Skycasters perform are: installation coordination, billing, technical support,
and engineering. The first three really do not require any specialized skill, just
a brain and the willingness to learn. Installers are required to be bonded, have two-way VSAT certification, people-skills, and keep a neat work area.
However to be an engineer at Skycasters you must have have a lot of experience. For example the senior RF engineer at Skycasters
has spent 30+ years in the Army, which solidifies his experience in the field. The
R&D work done at Skycasters is mostly "mechanical engineering". They make trailers,
flyaways, fuel cell powered systems, etc. that all become massive integration projects
of various pieces of off the shelf technology.