History of Broadcasting and Telecommunications
any transmission, emission, or reception of signals, writing, images, or other information
by wire, radio, or any other electromagnetic system
. Being able to send messages
remotely has been the subject of many technological advances since the easliest
days of the concept.
was first invented in the 1870s by Alexander Graham Bell and Elisha Gray. They both
came up with the idea around the same time and practically raced eachother to the
patent office. Later they both entered a long legal battle over the patent and Alexander
Graham Bell won. The birthday of the telephone was March 10, 1876, which was also
the death of the multiple telegraph. Bell was able to develop the telephone using
information about the earlier invention of the telegraph. By October 1874, he was
able to inform his father-on-law of a multiple telegraph.
earliest radio transmissions, or
, carried dots and dashes in the forms of wireless telegraphy.
a Canadian living in Brant Rock, Massachusetts, created a system, with the support
of the National Electric Signaling Company, that had enough power to carry distinguishable
audio sounds. His first broadcasts
on December 24, 1906, were primarily to shipboard operators of the US Navy and United
Fruit Company equipped with the Fessenden apparatus along the Atlantic Coast. The
transmissions included sounds of his violin and bible passages. His financial supporters
discontinued the project because they thought that it would have little practical
use since it was only a one way signal to multiple receivers.
||In April of 1909 Charles Herrold sent out broadcasts from his Herrold School Electronics
Institute in San Jose
10 years before the Department of Commerce began to regulate radio by requiring
operators to buy licenses to send out signals. From 1909 until 1916, he was on the
air identifying himself as "SJN."
During the first world war most stations were not allowed to continue broadcasting.
After the war, in 1921 he was granted a commercial broadcast license for
KQW which was eventually sold and became KCBS in San Francisco. Herrold also
gave us the distinction between the terms broadcasting and
narrowcasting based on his
father's patented seed spreader.
||David Sarnoff came out with the "radio
music box memo" stating the possibility that the Marconi Wireless Telephone
Company could set up radio broadcast
services aimed at the general public. Sarnoff later became the
3rd President of the Radio Corporation of America, RCA.
Frank Conrad is considered by many to be the father of commercial radio
KDKA in East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania introducing advertising to radio.
||Alfred J. Gross invented the first
walkie-talkie. In 1941 he invented a "two-way air-to-ground communications
system" that the United States used in the second World War. This helped communicate
with pilots who were currently flying behind enemy lines. The ground and airborne
communication device communicated over radio waves. But this whole system wasn't
introduced to the public until 1976. Soldiers since World War II, businesses, law
enforcement, and emergency services have all been able to benefit from using these
2-way communication devices.
||Martin Cooper led the development of the invention of the
cell phone when he was hired by Motorola. He had worked on developing
other portable communication products before like portable, handheld police-radios.
On April 3, 1973 Martin Cooper and Motorola took the cell phone to a public demonstration
in New York. He made the first cell phone call using the heavy, 30-ounce phone,
to his rival at AT&T Bell Labs.
||Sputnik was launched by the USSR. The United States Department of Defense formed ARPA
(presently named DARPA) to take the lead of militant technology. Many in the Department
of Defense wondered exactly what was being sent by those many beeps being emitted
from this first man-made satellite. This led to widespread panic in the general
population and also those who worked in the newly emerging telecommunications field.
Were we, as a country, vulnerable to a threat from the heavens? With the Nuclear Genie
out of the bottle at this point something must be done to protect our soil an way
||A man named Paul Baran of a government agency named RAND commenced a study
for the United States Air Force to have control over their missiles and bombers (this way in
case of a nuclear attack the Uunited States could still have command over their retaliative
nuclear vessels). This birthed the idea of "packet switching". This idea was one
in which information could be taken into the form of a "package" then be sent to
another computer, reorganized in the correct sequence and in the case of information
being lost it could be resent.
||While NASA had its eye and feet on the moon, Paul and his three other acquaintances
put ARPANET into action with a mini computer (which served as a base for the switch)
linked to four nodes.
||Ray Tomlinson developed a way of copying files called CPYNET over the network
to his employees He then made e-mail compatible with ARPANET released in 1972. He
is the creator of the @ symbol to link user name and address. FTP allowed file transfers
between Internet sites. Ethernet (for local networks) was Bob Metcalfe's idea which
he at the time claimed to be "packet networks. Harvard rejected this thought until
further elaboration was provided through equations.
||ARPENET started using Network Control Protocol (NCP).
||The 70's invention of TCP(IP) was officially excepted by the Defense Department.
||IP universally replaced NCP and is still used today.
||DSL, digital subscriber line - a modem specifier, was invented with the
stimulus of video in mind. It had a preferred faster download rate which was needed
to run video streams. The wired-down DSL concept was soon replaced by the wireless
internet known as WiFi. WiFi uses a router box that plugs into a phone outlet. This,
ironically enough like radios, uses radio waves to send transmitions between your
computer and the device. These devices relay back to wires that we see everyday
in the ground and in the air. Besides radio waves for short game there is a subsequently
large cable across the Atlantic Ocean which was complete in 1866 to send instant
telegraphs across the sea. There were many inventors that picked up on the idea
of e-mail once there was the chance for information to be shared on multiple windows
from multiple terminals.
||Tim Berners-Lee and his companions at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics
(CERN) made up a new system for information distribution which by 1991 became the
world wide web.
||The University of Minnesota decided they wanted a more user friendly interface
for searching of files of the college's local network for their students.
||MIT's school for computer technology raised fears of different necessary
software for different Internet methods. This fear in mind, they requested that
Tim's system of hyper texting be set as the standard for Internet protocol.
||The limit of commercial business on the Internet was abolished when the
National Science Foundation discontinued their support of the Internet's backbone
||The Internet was initially funded by the government, therefore its uses could only
be used for intentions of research and education. These rules took a major turn
for the better in 1998 when Windows 98 came out and made Bill Gates dream of the
Internet becoming a commercially-based reality.