Prepare a 200- to 300-word history about the National Critical
Technology (NCT) technical application your team has selected to solve a local or
Cite three detailed examples of research done in the past 3 to
5 years which focused on the NCT technical application your team selected. Include:
A centerboard is a retractable device (that turns on a pivot point) and is attached to a sailboat or any other type of large commercial ships. Centerboards, or leeboards, were first documented in a manuscript in 759 by Li Chuan for Junks, or Chinese sailboats, which was later adapted to Portuguese and Dutch ships around 1570.
Carbon fiber was initially discovered in the late 1800's by Thomas Edison when he
was testing thousands of different materials to use as a filament in the light bulb,
but its true abilities were still unknown. Near the end of World War II Union Carbide developed a carbonized rayon cloth for the U. S. Air Force as a replacement for fiberglass
in rocket nozzle exit cones and re-entry heat shields. Carbon fiber began
its entry into common use in 1956 with the opening of the Parma Technical Center. There
Roger Bacon experimented with carbon arcs in 1958. He found that small carbon stalactites formed on one of the electrodes;
when a stalactite was broken open there were small flexible and resilient carbon “whiskers” embedded
in the stalactite wall.
In 1822 Daniel Colloden used an underwater bell to calculate the
speed of sound. Later, in 1906, Lewis Nixon invented
the first sonar device to detect icebergs. Sonar became a hot topic as World
War I progressed because of the need to detect submarines. These early passive listening
devices were called
ASDICS. In 1915 Paul Langévin invented the first sonar device using the piezoelectric properties of quartz.
One year later, the sinking of a submarine was first recorded on a hydrophone. By 1918 both England and the United States had invented active sonar, where
signals are sent as well as received. Later developments of sonar included the echo
sounder, or depth detector, rapid-scanning sonar, side-scan sonar, and WPESS sonar.
the funding agency,
the principal investigator's name, and
the institution where the research is
or was being conducted.
Prior to citing our related grants, we would like to present three patents granted
by the US Patent Office that directly support our product.
Based on the research your team has done, explain how the NCT
application chosen has advanced scientific knowledge.
Now we would like to present three grants that support our product:
Retractable steering device for cargo barges that increases maneuverability by providing
a pivot point or points when altering course by William B Rudolph
(September 29, 1992) outlines a device that can be fitted to a
compartment within a retrofitted barge hull, that can be withdrawn into the hull
or lowered into position below the hull to act as a keel-type device to resist lateral
planing in an unloaded barge tow, the device can be rotated to create optimal performance
in the extended position.
Antiskid device for flat bottom boats by Earl R Jones
(August 17, 1993) outlines a pair of pivotally attached fins that
are hinged at the leading edge to the underside of a flat bottom boat, to allow
them to pivot away from and clear underwater obstacles without being damaged, and
can return to the lowered position after the obstacle has been cleared.
Slidable and impact reducing keel by Per Larsen (July
15, 2003) outlines a device that utilizes a tongue and groove connection
to pivot a fin type device into a receiver within the ships hull. The fin device
can also be adjusted to variable positions along the underside of the ships hull,
to shift the vesels center of mass.
- The first grant was received by
Gary R. Consolazio, Ph.D an associate professor of civil and coastal engineering
at the University of Florida form the Florida Department of Transportation (project BC-354 RPWO #23). He conducted an in-depth experiment
concerning the collision of barges with bridges. He received $1 million dollars
in grant money from the Florida Department of Transportation to conduct his research
on the former St. George’s Island Causeway Bridge in Franklin County, Florida. During
the months of March through April, 2004, Dr. Consolazio’s team actually crashed a 151-foot long barge carrying 280-tons (4 trials)
and 600-tons (8 trials) of cargo into the bridge’s pier. His research uncovered
more accurate ways to test dynamic impact loads that will hopefully reduce the cost
of future projects; and more importantly, make the calculations of pier strength
more precise. His research is especially relevant for Florida, where one of the
most infamous collisions occurred in 1980 when a freighter brought down a section
of the Sunshine Skyway Bridge in St. Petersburg, sending 35 people to their deaths.
- The second grant was received by Robert Haddon, Peter Eklund, Eric Grulke, and Frank
Derbyshire, professors at the University of Kentucky on February 28, 2003 from the
National Science Foundation (Award Number 9809686). They are researching ways to synthesize
carbon fibers using natural sources. The value of the grant totaled $6.7 million
which was to include an Advanced Carbon Materials Center within UK where the research
would be taking place. The goal of this research is to yield reduced production
costs and a lesser environmental impact from manufacturing which is relevant because
current manufacturing is energy-heavy and has a high toll on the environment.
- The final grant was awarded on July 14, 2004 to Oguzhan Bayrak and James Jirsa of
the University of Texas at Austin by the National Science Foundation (Award Number 0324592). They are researching the use of carbon
fiber sheets to reinforce materials not able to withstand the loads put upon them
in extreme circumstances otherwise. The grant has been awarded to date $100,116.
Carbon fiber is a light but extremely strong fiber which is a pyrolyzing (a transformation
of a compound by heat) synthetic fiber, for example rayon, until it is fully charred.
It is used for extremely high-strength composites. Throughout its discovery, scientists have found a multitude of uses in everyday
life and production. It goes from the very simple, tennis racquet strings,
to the very sophisticated, x-ray shielding. We also use it in high-performance
vehicles and automotive steering system components. The reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) is used structurally
in such high-temperature applications as the leading edges of the space shuttles. A non-polymer
material can be mixed for a matrix for carbon fibers. This fiber is found in filtration of high-temperature gases and also can make the
in high-performance clothing. Scientists now even think they can use carbon
fiber in the construction of buildings and bridges to make them earthquake-proof.
Carbon fiber is used to make many parts of a boat such as masts, sails, spreaders, booms and spinnaker poles. Carbon fiber is preferred because it is light and extremely strong. It is also preferred because it can blend in to traditional designs. One draw back is that Carbon fiber is extremely expensive. Carbon fiber is also being used by the Swedish navy to reduce the various detection methods used for spotting ships including visually, radar, sonar, and even infrared.
Sonar has also made many advances in our scientific knowledge. One application developed by the military is called Target Motion Analysis (TMA). This process provides the targets range, course and speed, by marking the direction the sound comes from at different times. The collected information is calculated by using geometric techniques and making inferences about limiting cases. Sonar is also used to detect underwater mines, submarines, as fish finders for commercial fishing companies, depth detection for diving clearance and communication at sea.
The sonar in our device will act autonomously as a controller to raise and lower our centerboard.
American Chemical Society
Bio-Carbon Tech Co, Ltd
Florida Deptartment of Transportation
National Science Foundation
National Sonar Association
Scottish Institute for Enterprise / Napier University (Edinburgh)
United States Patent and Trademark Office
University of Florida
University of Kentuck, Center for Applied Research
Wikipedia: Chinese Junk