Mainland High School  
WaterGates: ISTF Project #01-0224



ISTF Contest



2-Stroke Engine - Engine that is normally used in Jet-skies. They use a fuel and oil mixture that are both burned in the cylinder chamber. Normally small and run on high RPM's. no crank case

4-Stroke Engine - Engine that is normally in Cars and Boats. Has a crankcase (oil is added sepratly and is not burned in the combustion reaction)

Aliphatic Hydrocarbons - hydrocarbons which do not contain a benzine ring

amphipod - small crustaceans

ASTM - American Society for Testing and Materials

Bluewater Network - a national environmental organization aggressively confronting the root causes of climate change and fighting environmental damage from the shipping, oil, and motorized recreation industries.

CAA - Clean Air Act, passed in 1975

CARB - California Air Resources Board

Carborator - Device that brings and allow fule passage into the combustion chamber

CaRFG2 - California Phase II reformultated Gasoline

CaRFG3 - California Phase III reformulated gasoline without MTBE. Will be introduced on December 31, 2002

Combustion Chamber - Place where spark pulg fires and creates combustion in above piston

Crank-shaft - Device that turns the propeller in a jet-ski, located in the bottom of the engine

CWA - Clean Water Act, passed in 1972 by EPA

Engine - A machine that converts energy into mechanical force or motion. Such a machine distinguished from an electric, spring-driven, or hydraulic motor by its use of a fuel. A mechanical appliance, instrument, or tool: engines of war.

EPA - Environmental Protection Area

ETBE - ethyl tert-butyl ether, gas emissions reducer

four stroke engine - an engine that uses two up strokes and two down strokes

hydrocarbon - An organic compound containing only carbon and hydrogen

Impeller - a type of propeller fitted into a surrounding "tunnel"

In-Situ - Static

Intake Port - Used in (MPI) Multi Port Injection, used in moder fuel system, fuel comes in through it and is then distributed into the combustion chamber

LUST - Leaking Underground Storage Tanks

magneto - A device that produces alternating current for distribution to the spark plugs, used in the ignition systems of some internal-combustion engines. [Short for magnetoelectric machine.]

mg/L - micrograms per liter

MMT - methylcyclopetdielyl manganese tricarbonyl, octane booster

motor - Something, such as a machine or an engine, that produces or imparts motion. A device that converts any form of energy into mechanical energy, especially an internal-combustion engine or an arrangement of coils and magnets that converts electric current into mechanical power.

MTBE - 1) methyl tertiary-butyl ether

MTBE plume - an elongated and usually open and mobile column or band

MTHF - methyl tetra hydro furan, octane booster

NAAQS - National Ambient Air Quality Standards

octane - Any one of a group of metametric hydrocarcons (C8H18) of the methane series. The most important is a colorless, volatile, inflammable liquid, found in petroleum, and a constituent of benzene or ligroin. Any of various isomeric paraffin hydrocarbons with the formula C8H18, found in petroleum and used as a fuel and solvent

octane - The main component of gasoline, octane is an isometric saturated hydrocarbon consisting of 8 carbon atoms and 18 hydrogen atoms per molecule. It is found in petroleum and used as a fuel and solvent. 

oxygenates - substances that, when added to gasoline, increase the amount of oxygen in the gasoline blend

Personal Watercraft (PWC) - A boat under 16 ft in length that is powered by an inboard, internal combustion engine running a water jet pump

Power Stroke - Time in the engiine scycle when engery is utilized

Powerplant - Engine, motor

PPB - Parts per billion

PWC - Personal Water Craft

RFG - Reformulated gasoline, containing oxygenates, such as MTBE or ethanol

RPM - Rotations per Minute, the amout of times that an engine makes a complete in each minute

scavenging loss - the loss of fuel from the act of fuel going directly from the intake to the exhaust

TAME - Tert-Ayl methyl ether, a gas additive

TBA - Tert-butyl alcohol, replaced lead in gas

two stroke engine - an engine in which the piston has one up and one down stroke per cycle

VOC - Volatile Organic Compounds

volatilizes - to cause to pass off in vapor

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